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The following content is considered nonlegal and nonbinding OPINION only, and does not legally assume any entity is responsible for the accuracy of any facts that may seem to be presented by any entity. Rather this is meant to be a starting point of research into the facts or truth. The standard of the reasonable person should be assumed with regard to any possible research into the facts or truth!


Gardening is primarily dependant on soil and water quality, such as acid or base or drainable, clay or filled with organic material; light and air flow.

Organic material should be often left on top of the soil, and too much can cause less fruiting, and more leafing and REDUCE vitamin C or other nutrients in the plant.

It is best to enrich soil with ground rocks and minerals. Sulfur to acidify soil, lime to make basic.

Use Basil to control pests, Geranium next to cabbage controls worms, Garlic to control insects and animals.

Basel and Tomatoes with asparagus repels beetles and enhances flavor of Basel and Tomatoes.

A good publisher of attractive gardening books is,

Alcohol in bulb mix will keep them growing less tall.

Seeds can be obtained inexpensively from feed stores, the wild, discount stores or catalogues, or clubs or friends.

Cuttings, rootings, and bulbs, and can be found in nature or sometimes even as waste as leftover prunings left to be picked in the street or even directly from the government when they want to induce shade and water conservation or improve property values.

Seeds produced in a region are sometimes called acclimatized or normalized to the soil of the region and tend to grow strong and healthy plants.

It can be best to landscape so that plants that need the most water are at lower grades that the water drains to due to gravity.

Wood, even rocks, in the garden tend to give pests places to hide and tends to be counter productive.

It might be best to try to capture all water that comes on a property and to use succulents to prevent water runoff from a property.

Erosion, water, climate, shade, noise, traffic, sun, animal CONTROL, energy conservation, and property value should likely be some of the most important considerations in gardening and landscaping.

Mixing different types of plants together can make for stronger environments for all the plants involved and greater resistance to insects and disease.

Trees and other larger plants can be made more stable by putting rocks and pebbles in the holes where they are planted and the rocks can also nourish the plant with needed minerals.

Completely level land can hamper irrigation, it might be best to create a hole, or holes, to allow water to gather in puddles and dry, especially on hills.

Some plants grow in water and not all plants need oxygen to be in the ground to live or for the ground to dry.

It can be best to keep ground moist and to NEVER allow plants to dry out. Some water plants grow in water. Same air plants can grow in air.

Aeration or punching holes in grass lawns or putting fertilizer in the punched holes is a rather strange concept, and is NOT to be done to bushes with shallow roots, and might be best to completely avoid; aeration is mostly meant to clean stagnate water.

Almost all commercial nonorganic fertilizers should likely be illegal.ed>

Fertilizers should be bioactive mixes of organic materials including vitamins and/or mixes of minerals that are depleted from the current soil.

Pruning is mostly to help air flow through a plant and shouldn't consist of lopping, or taking excessive amounts of the top off of a plant.

Plants colored red tend to do best in the shade.

Plants often need much less light than most would think.

Germination and growing tends to be dependant on heat, soil and water type.

Many gardening techniques are foolish fads, such as elevated square box gardening because the plants tend to dry out quickly in some regions, so there is often more effort needed, instead of less effort needed to sustain the plants.

Plants can often be planted densely if there is a great deal of nutrition and water in the soil, and pests may thin them out, and thinning out plants by hand tends to disrupt the plants to much.

Often so-called annuals and perennials that are edible can often be allowed to go to seed or remain in the soil for over a year and the new grown can then be harvested from a plant that is now very strong and stable.

It is often best to NOT disrupt a plant that is doing wonderfully in a location.

Seeds are often planted the depth of three times their size, but in extreme conditions it may be best to go to nine times their size.

Most plants grow best at about 60-80 degrees Fahrenheit.

Some seeds germinate with heat about 80 degrees Fahrenheit, and may not need light to germinate. Some seeds need light to germinate; others need darkness.

Division or cutting should produce identical copies of a hybrid (usually sterile meaning the fruit will not produce productive seeds) parent, but similar species of plants should be planted apart of avoid cross pollination (natural selection) that produces a unique plant that may not be even very similar to the plants they originated from, and may produce a flavor that isn't similar to the plants expected to be grown that was shown on the seed package.

Potatoes are mainly grown on sandy soils, CAN BE USED TO CLEAN THE SOIL (PREVENT THE REGROWTH OF WEEDS by competing with the weeds), AS CAN OTHER EASIER TO GROW LARGE BULBS OR SEEDS, SUCH AS ONIONS, PEAS, BEENS, GARLIC. Nitrogen (N) is the most yield-limiting nutrient, Phosphorus (P0) the next most limiting nutrient, then zinc (Zn) and then occasionally iron (Fe). Generally, rooting vegitables need Phosphorus (P0)!

Generally, leafing plants need Nitrogen, Potassium, Phosphorous, Calcium, Sulfur, Iron, Magnesium, Zinc, Molybdenum, Copper, Manganese, and Boron; DEFICIENCY is indicated by yellowing, dead spots, or stunted growth.

Sulphur is a safe lower soil pH, promoting disease resistance, and benefit dark green leafing.

An objective in gardening should to be sustainable and stable gardening, not similar to agriculture, where crop rotation and cover crops are advocated, with constant removing the entire plant when harvesting the plants; instead with proper organic and natural soil amendments of pebbles, gravel dust, and sand; land should be continually planted, protected and productive. This can be an organic form of gardening, and organic designation may be obtained after five years of gardening chemical free.

Gardens can consist of annuals allowed to grow to seed so to reseed the same area with what are called volunteers, which tend to be much more hardly than store bought plants. Perennials should be allowed to stay in place and reseed also.

It can be good to shop at the local nursery, or visit the local plant or garden club, to ensure that the plants obtained, perhaps even for free or for trade, grow in local conditions, and even water from different lakes or dams can prevent the growth of some plants that may need more acidic soil or water, such a camellias, azaleas. Gardening clubs can also be great educators about more advanced propagation techniques, such as growing from cuttings, rootings, grafting. Sometimes a former grower or researcher may offer plants, aid at great discounts. Also, sometimes the local nursery that isn't even also in business with the local hardware store, or a major discount retail establishment, has lower prices, and than the long commute is avoided with much less of plant damage during transport, even if there is a return policy if the plant dies, the local nursery may be a better long term deal

Many seed packets instructions may be wrong, except when they state something very specialized, such as the seed needs to be ground down to sprout, about planting depth, time, or especially with melons and gourds hilling, because these tend to need large amounts of water, likely grew near streams in nature, and can be planted near a lower elevation that captures runoff water.

Herbs, evergreens, conifers can be used as wind, rodent barrier and bird nesting zone (to keep insect pests under control and to help stabilize the weather and insure that moisture stays in the garden); however excessive use of conifers can acidify the soil too much when their needles trop. Flowers and plants that attract hummingbirds could be planted, or perhaps allowing a bee keeper to use your land for free may help prevent damage to crops from excessive insects.

Stabality and Sustainability should be more important than tearing out plants and leaving the soil unprotected.

Some fruit trees, vines needed to be planted together to help cross pollination and need both male and female plants to bear fruit.

Sometimes the local nursery person who has a license from the state may be better at landscape and garden design than a person who has a degree, and may have more customers and experience than the degreed person, and may have even previously been in the design field.

Seeds tend to cease to be viable after five years losing 25% the first year, 50% the second year, 75% the third year, 85% the forth year in viability. However, those in airtight packets may stay viable longer, but those in paper than to die when even moisture is in the air from sprouting, and should also be put in plastic, and then in a metal container, especially if left outside where the animals may wish to eat them. Some seeds are over dried. Some seeds, plants, or bulbs can be bought from the local organic grocer and replanted and huge discount than, for instance, buying a few seed potatoes for about twenty dollars from supplier either over the Internet or catalogue, and some plants can not be shipped to some states from these outfits, such a fruit trees. These suppliers may promise perfect shipments of plants, but often this isn't the case, and then time is lost.

Climate conditions can vary in even an acre garden, especially if hills, large body of water exit that can cause wind damage, flooding or more water runoff in one area, but level land isn't needed to garden, just design to plant the largest users of water at the bottom of the hills. Some seed companies and seed developers plant on hills, or in the mountains, to prevent cross-pollination and to get a pure strain of seed for sale to the public.

Gardens may not need to be thinned as advocated by some seed package authors. Rather even with very sophisticated fences, covering, technology over planting will still not prevent rodent and deer from sharing part of your harvest with them, and some species are protected from harm by humans in some areas.

Citrus can need to have an amendment of a base, such as lime to make the fruit less acidic.

Companion Planting exists and tends to follow the guidelines of Security Through Diversity by (1) not putting different root crops close together, or (2) different nitrogen fixing plants (Legumes—such as peas, beans, and clovers) together, or (3) GENERALLY NOT PUTTING similar plants together; (4) trap planting to try to TRAP a pest to the inexpensive plant to eat in a remote area of the garden or (5) using the herbs or the African marigold for biochemical pest suppression or (6) using plants that do not taste good or have intense smells to discourage pests, likely at the edge of the garden; (7) Protection planting using some plants to shade other plants, creating Beneficial Habitats for the predators of pests or (8) using plants with thick roots to prevent digging into the center areas of the garden; (9) leaving an open area without overhead cover that most rodents fear to enter (10) using decoys resembling poisonous plant, a scarecrow or a predator or using sounds to discourage predation (but this rarely seems to work anywhere or is the least effective means to discourage pests).

Plants with intense smells, such as onions, sage, rosemary can discourage pests, especially if they also have dense root systems, and can be best planted at the edge of a garden, or to act as a border for the garden, or cinnamon or smelling soap can discourage pesty critters.

Bulbs, such as tulips, may only multiply or flower if first frozen, which is called hardening.

Trellises can be used to do more land intensive gardening to allow climbing plants to grow upwards instead of outwards.

Containers can be used for excessively fast growing non-native plants, such as bamboo or eucalyptus, likely planting these non-natives may be illegal in the future, and some local governments are removing euclayptus because it breaks easily and can cause accidents, and may be a lawsuit risk.

Poisonous plants, such as oleander should be avoided, especially where children play, and has a history of being used as a divider on freeways, so it tends to have the connotation of being cheap, and may be a lawsuit risk.

Lawsuits are a risk when plants that have strong roots are planted near pipes and clog the pipes.

Crabgrass and some other fast growing grasses that also can easily cut skin may be a lawsuit risk.

Planting should generally be done in the most defensive manner possible to avoid any risks and to help stabilize the soil.

Deep watering, especially of fruit bearing trees, should likely be done during the flowerbearing period to avoid splitting of the fruit due to excessive watering near time it ripens.

Most angiosperms, such as roses, grapes and herbs, can be grown from cuttings if placed in warm willow water first, either with nodes or small cuts and about six inches ow stem before planting.

Layering or rooting tends to work with herbs with more tender leaves or with more flexible branches, such as: tarragon, chives and mint.

Cuttings tend to work best with more woody herbs, such as: lavender, lemon balm, scented geraniums, sage and rosemary.

Some better sources of seeds are:,,,, and vertical gardening units can be bought at

Many false beliefs exist about gardening, such as adding too much nitrogen (often as so-called compost) to the soil which can cause Vitamin C deficiency in the plant or burning the plant (usually yellow leaves are a symptom of this) or excessive growth of leaves, and less fruit, rather than putting compost on top of the plants, which still can attract too many non-beneficial bugs, often also called pests. Square box gardening, often involving wood, or adding any wood (even as compost) to the garden, has hazards, such as giving bugs, pests a place to hide and even adding too much nitrogen to the soil leached from the wood (moreover, some wood has been treated with poisons), but it can also cause excessive water to be wasted and for the plants to dry out quickly. Therefore, planting should be geared to the weather, and seeds should be likely planted deeper in more extreme weather. Overworking the soil can be a hazard and can disturb a healthy plant. Rather allowing a plant to continue to produce new growth and cutting off some of the new growth as food is often better than constantly replanting the same type of seeds. Seeds may need to be accustomed to a soil and come from many generations of seeds used to the same soil conditions. This can be called acclimitizing the seeds, or acclimitized seeds. Genetically engineered seed should be avoided, and likely legislation should be done to make it illegal to sell because it may cause cancer in lifeforms. The author believes it is generally false that plants can be overwatered, but fungus can grow or mold that can kill an excessively watered plant. Great gardens bring a sense of wealth and health to an environment.

Non-hybrid vegetable garden seeds can be found at